Culture 9, page 120
8 which / that
1 In those days, people didn't think it was necessary to educate girls.
2 She inherited £4,300 on the death of her parents.
3 She wore a long black dress.
4 She was critical of them because she thought they damaged the traditions and culture of the African people.
5 She went on three expeditions.
6 She died of typhoid.
1 brown route first expedition from Luanda across southern Africa orange route second expedition to explore the east coast of Africa and sail up the Zambezi River and the Ruvuma River into the centre of Africa green route third expedition beginning on the east coast of Africa to find the source of the Nile
2 brown circle Livingstone saw the Victoria Falls on the Zambezi River in 1855. orange circle Livingstone's wife Mary died in 1862. green circle (1) (next to lake) In 1871, Stanley found Livingstone at a place called Ujiji on the shore of Lake Tanganyika. green circle (2) Livingstone died here in 1873.
Interviewer My guest today on Great Explorers is Emily Winston, professor of Modern History at London University. We will be discussing the great explorer, David Livingstone. Thank you for coming on the show, Emily.
Emily My pleasure.
Interviewer Can you start by telling us a bit about his background?
Emily Yes, David Livingstone was born near Glasgow, Scotland, on 19th March 1813. His parents worked in a cotton factory and David began working there too at the age of 10. He worked twelve hours a day and then had school lessons in the evening.
Interviewer So it was a hard life!
Emily Yes, very hard. Then in 1836, he went to Glasgow to study medicine and theology and decided to become a missionary doctor. At first he wanted to travel to China, but war broke out there so he chose Africa instead.
Interviewer Where did he go in Africa?
Emily His first visit was to western Africa. From Luanda he headed eastwards in 1854 towards the centre of the continent. He was the first European to see the enormous waterfalls on the River Zambezi, in 1855. He renamed them 'Victoria Falls' after the Queen. He continued eastwards and arrived at the mouth of the River Zambezi the following year. He was the first European to cross southern Africa.
Interviewer It must have been a very difficult and dangerous journey. Why did he do it? What motivated him?
Emily Well, he wanted to introduce African people to Christianity, but his main aim was to free them from slavery, which horrified him. His motto was 'Christianity, Commerce and Civilisation. He thought that if he could bring Christianity and trade and commerce to Africa, the slave trade would die out. Having returned to Britain he wrote a book about his travels and tried to get support for his ideas.
Interviewer And were his ideas popular?
Emily Yes, Livingstone persuaded the British Government to pay for his second expedition, which lasted six years from 1858 to 1864. During that time he explored the east coast of Africa and tried to sail up the Zambezi River and the Ruvuma River into the centre of Africa. He hoped that these rivers would become important trade routes. In 1862 his wife Mary travelled to meet him at the mouth of the River Zambezi. But she tragically died a few months later of malaria.
Interviewer How awful for him.
Emily Yes, it must have been. And the expedition itself was a failure too. Livingstone found it impossible to get a boat far up either the Zambezi or the Ruvuma. He continued on land up the Zambezi and also explored Lake Malawi, but eventually he abandoned the expedition and returned to Britain.
Interviewer But he came back to Africa one more time, didn't he?
Emily Yes, in 1866 he returned to the east coast and set out to find the source of the Nile.
Interviewer So no one knew at that time where the Nile actually started?
E No. Livingstone spent six years looking for it, with no contact at all with the outside world. In fact, many people thought he was dead. And that's why an American reporter called Stanley set out to find him in 1869. When Stanley finally found Livingstone, two years later, at Ujiji on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, he greeted him with the now famous words, 'Dr Livingstone, I presume?'
Interviewer And did Livingstone find the source of the Nile?
Emily No, he didn't. He was ill by now, with malaria, and he died two years later. But the expedition wasn't a total failure as he discovered a number of lakes and rivers, as well as the Victoria Falls.